Can I Convert My Whole 401(k) to a Roth IRA?

Can I convert my entire 401k to a Roth IRA

Converting from a traditional to Roth 401(k) can be an attractive strategy if you anticipate entering higher tax brackets after retirement. But keep in mind that the IRS taxes any nondeductible funds or earnings converted to Roth.

If you’re contemplating a large conversion, be sure to estimate your taxable income and consult a tax professional beforehand.


Rolling over your 401(k) into a Roth IRA converts its entire value into taxable income for the year you make the conversion, increasing your tax bill depending on how much is converted and other forms of taxable income received during that year.

Converting large sums all at once may put you into a higher tax bracket, which may not be beneficial to your retirement savings in the long run. To reduce tax costs as much as possible, make your conversion during a low-income year to minimize tax bills.

Financial planners or tax consultants can assist in evaluating whether Roth IRA conversion is right for you. Once decided, working with your IRA administrator to complete the conversion is key – they’ll provide all the paperwork and transfer instructions that need to be filed with the IRS, says Damaryan. Be sure to estimate your additional tax bill so as to avoid underpayment penalties; this step is particularly essential if withdrawing your money within five years.


Dependent upon the rules of your plan, you may be eligible to convert part of your savings into a Roth. In such a situation, however, specific tax rules must be observed: for instance, the government considers your nondeductible contributions in proportion to total value of assets before taxing any conversions.

Consider what investments are available in your new account and which may best help your money grow at an accelerated rate, such as growth stocks. But beware: those investments often pose greater risk than more conservative options like bonds or CDs.

If you are planning to transfer some or all of your retirement funds into a Roth, it would be prudent to consult a financial advisor first. They can help explain any trade-offs associated with making this transition and devise strategies to minimize your tax bill.


If you decide to convert your 401k into a Roth IRA, you have two rollover options. A direct rollover involves sending funds directly from your 401(k) into the new account with your chosen custodian; although this method requires more paperwork and may take more time and cost more money in terms of fees charged by custodians, but is usually quicker and less costly overall.

An indirect rollover requires your 401(k) plan administrator to send the funds directly to you and give you 60 days to transfer them into another retirement account, making sure income taxes at your current tax rate are covered during that time.

Before switching from a traditional, pretax 401(k) to a Roth, after-tax IRA, it is wise to consider all relevant factors carefully. A financial advisor or wealth planner can assist in helping determine whether the long-term tax benefits outweigh any initial conversion costs.


If you decide to convert assets from your 401k into a Roth IRA, they must first be moved into a traditional IRA account because your investments were made with pretax dollars that will be subject to ordinary income tax when you withdraw them at retirement or sooner.

Taxes associated with conversion can add up quickly, so it is crucial that you carefully calculate all associated expenses. Your financial advisor or tax consultant can assist in this regard and can also suggest low-cost investments to be transferred into your Roth IRA (since the choices in 401k plans may be limited).

Be sure to factor in any employer matching contributions you have. They’ll go into an accompanying regular 401k account, with taxes due on them. Finally, decide whether or not a trustee-to-trustee rollover or direct transfer would be best; oftentimes the latter option offers less paperwork hassle.

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